Cutting tools (or cutters) must be made of a material harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface. The angle of the cutting face is also important, as is the flute width, number of flutes or teeth, and margin size. In order to have a long working life, all of the above must be optimized, plus the speeds and feeds at which the tool is run.
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their distinctive hardness, resistance to abrasion, their ability to hold a cutting edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures (red-hardness). Tool steel is generally used in a heat-treated state.
With a carbon content between 0.7% and 1.5%, tool steels are manufactured under carefully controlled conditions to produce the required quality. The manganese content is often kept low to minimize the possibility of cracking during water quenching. However, proper heat treating of these steels is important for adequate performance, and there are many suppliers who provide tooling blanks intended for oil quenching.
Tool steels are made to a number of grades for different applications. Choice of grade depends on, among other things, whether a keen cutting edge is necessary, as in stamping dies, or whether the tool has to withstand impact loading and service conditions encountered with such hand tools as axes, pickaxes, and quarrying implements. In general, the edge temperature under expected use is an important determinant of both composition and required heat treatment. The higher carbon grades are typically used for such applications as stamping dies, metal cutting tools, etc.
AISI D2 is a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with molybdenum and vanadium
characterized by :-
– High wear resistance
– High compressive strength
– Good through-hardening properties
– High stability in hardening
– Good resistance to tempering-back.
High Speed Steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels,commonly used in cutting tools.
It is often used in power saw blades and drill bits.
This property allows HSS to cut faster than high carbon steel, hence the name high speed steel.
At room temperature, in their generally recommended heat treatment, HSS grades generally display high hardness (above HRC60) and a high abrasion resistance compared to common carbon and tool steels.